The modern development cities are mostly industrial cities which began the large-scale development in late nineteenth Century. Till now, a lot of cities, especially regions which supported by traditional industries, began to experience economic and political decline, and the city developments cannot keep up the progress of the times, they gradually step on the edge of elimination. Cities facing recession are bearing the pressure of complex economic, social, physical environment, ecological environment and financial problems, they have to not any handle the traditional industries inherited from the past, at the same time, they also have compete for a new round of investment and economic growth. This directly led to global development of the urban regeneration.
In which, the culture and art get more and more attention in the city regeneration, creative industries related to visual, culture and concept have become one of the main features of the world economy. This reminds me of the Landschaftspark Duisburg Nord designed by a famous designer Peter Latz who is a German landscape architect and a professor for landscape architecture at the Technical University of Munich this reconstruction project is a typical example that the industrial waste is rebuild into a new art.
The project located in the Ruhr Area in Germany which is one of the most striking part of IBA Emscher Park and also is the best known projects of Peter Latz. The site of 230 hectares was formerly a very large steel mill. Although it were once useful in history, it cannot resist the decline of industry. So it closed in 1985, many old industrial buildings and structures merged into the weeds. Government had decided to rebuild it to a public park which is belong to IBA Emscher Park in 1989.
At the beginning of planning, the most critical problem faced by designers is the things left by these factories and how to integrate these useless structures into today’s life and park’s landscape. With rational and clear design idea, Latz is intended to deal with this fragmented section in an ecological way. The development and design of Landschaftspark Duisburg Nord Park confirm four basic ecological guidelines:
1.Reserve the structures. The structures of factory are reserved and partial structures are given new functions.
2.Reuse the scrapped material. For example, bricks are collected as aggregate of red concrete and coal, ore sand and metals are used as medium of the growth of plants.
3.Recycle the water. The treated sewage and collected rainwater are diverted to the original cooling tank and settling pond of factory and then flow into Emscher River after clarification and filtering.
4.Respect and improve local ecosystem. The vegetation in the factory is reserved, the wild grass ground is allowed to grow freely and the coking plant and both sides of rail are overgrown with silver birch and willow. The vegetation of park is an organic combination of high-quality indigenous breed and exotic breed.
The park is divided into four landscape parts. First, by combining the elevated footpath, Rail Park creates a commanding height, establishes contact between downtown, enhances the urban communication and highlights the open function. Second, waterscape layer is set at the ground floor of park and the original wastewater discharge channel is used to collect rainwater. Third, all kinds of bridges and walkways in the park form the road system together. Fourth, the use district of different functions and unique parks are independent systems.
The handling method is to seek for the new explanation of these old landscape structures and elements, rather than conceal these fragmented landscape, and learn to understand the past industry, rather refuse them. After transformation design, this abandoned factory now changed into a lively park for people, and a culture symbol for local culture.