Change of the European city landscape during the industrial revolution


The ancient Rome empire marked Europe entered the feudal society of the middle ages. Due to farm for a Sunday Germanic south, the center of social life to the countryside, handicraft industry and commerce is very depressed, cities are in a state of decline, the population of Rome also reduced to 4 million.

Medieval Europe split into many small feudal kingdoms, feudal cut drama and wars, many with a defense of the castle. In Europe in the Middle Ages church is a powerful force. The church occupied the center position of the city, the Church of the large volume and towering spires has become the dominant factor in the layout of urban space and the skyline and the medieval European urban landscape has a unique charm.

After the 10th century, the handicraft industry and commerce gradually on the rise, some cities get rid of the rule of feudal lords, become the autonomous city, public buildings, such as city hall, the customs office and club industry occupy the dominant position of urban space. With the industrial and commercial prosperity, manymedieval city finally break through the castle, continue to expand outwards.

After fourth Century, the Renaissance is the budding period of European capitalism, science, art and technologyhave been developed rapidly. Under the influence of humanism, many medieval cities were rebuilt alterations tend to be concentrated in some local areas, such as square building group. The cities of Italy built many classical style and rigorous composition of square and streets, such as St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and Venice’s Piazza San Marco.

In the second half of the 17th century, the nascent capitalist urgently need the powerful state machinery to provide shelter, the bourgeoisie and the countries have formed an alliance, against the feudal rule and the power of the church established a number of centralized monarchical power autocracy. Effects of classicism in the urban construction, this kind of style in the 17th and 18th century by European royal keen and sought after, to Pope Urban VIII, Louis 14 on behalf of the European nobility built waterscape and palaces and gardens, without exception, mainly embodies a grand momentum, and created unique French Versailles Palace the main water.During this period, the fountain sculpture is divisor given solemn solemn and grand exquisite artistic characteristics, there are many fine arts, such as Italian fountain designed by Bernini statue of Poseidon, the combination of the statue and water has become a classic. Later the Rococo art trend make waterscapeapplication also be on the soft, charming and some artificial features.

Industrial revolution, also known as the industrial revolution, the early history of capitalist industrialization, namely capitalist production completed the stage from the workshop handicraft industry to machine industry transition. Is the machine production gradually replaced manual labor, large-scale factory production instead of individual workshop manual production of a production and technological revolution, and later extended to other industries.

The industrial revolution so that population growth may become a hitherto unknown. Although millions of Europeans migrated overseas if there during the 19th century, 1914 in continental Europe, the population is 1750 three times above. The population explosion is the economy and the progress of medicine. Agricultural and industrial productivity increased by a large margin, means that growth in the agricultural, food, shelter and other necessities of life data. The population growth is due to medical advances, due to many public health measures.Although the birth rate was little growth or even no growth, but the mortality rate is due to prevent or cure the disease and a sharp decline. Vaccination and isolation of infected patients, to protect the water supply, master knowledge about antimicrobial agents, all of which make northwest Europe, the mortality rate is reduced from 30% of the 1800 at least per thousand to about 15 per cent per thousand in 1914. So European populations from 1750 to 14000 sharply rose to 1800 years of 18800 million, 1850 26600, 1900 40100 million and 1914 46300 million.This growth rate is much higher than other European regions of the world, that changed the balance of the world’s population.

The industrial revolution caused the city of hitherto unknown world society. There has been a city since the new stone age, Neolithic period, the invention of agriculture leads to support urban center of surplus grain. Afterthousands of years,

The number of the city’s size depends on the surrounding area can produce food. Therefore, the most populouscity are in the valley area. With the development of large-scale river transport and maritime transport, the city can specialize in the trade and industry, so as to enable the population growth to exceed the agriculture of the mainland population limits.

However, the modern world caused by the industrial revolution. The city is much more important. Because the factory system replaced the dispersion in the family processing system, a large number of people into the newindustrial center. A huge new city population because of the food from all over the world and get support. Medical technology and progress has made possible the elimination of previously had large number of kills the urban residents of the plague, and even may make city life more tolerable and more palatable. These include importantprogress: an adequate supply of clean water, improve centralized drainage system and garbage.

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