Different types of roads



Roads, which are basic components of a city, connect different space structures of the city. They just like a city’s blood vessels to connect all of the places and transport powers and nutrients to maintain the normal operation of the whole city. The standard of evaluating whether the construction of a city is good or not lies in whether the city’s road system is reasonable and complete. A favorable road system, which can avoid traffic jam through rational analyses and design, can mobilize the vitality of a whole city other than give rise to traffic jams and other urban problems.

After attending the Richard Smith’s lecture, I began to think the present development trend of roads, the problems existing in the road systems in real life and how can we prevent the problems from arising and how to solve these problems. Urban roads serve people, so it is required to put people first during the planning and design process of the whole road system so as to guarantee the safety of multiple means of transportation, to create a safe, unobstructed, comfortable and pleasant traffic environment and to realize the sustainable development of a city through its traffic.



A carriageway is the primary traffic road to connect each principal part of a city and is the framework of the urban roads, with the basic function of transportation. As the most fundamental function of the urban carriageway, the transportation function shall be valued. The roads have different development patterns in different environments. In such a typical mountain city like Chongqing, the urban lands are disperse and the urban morphology is developed in the central area and in groups because the fluctuation of topography is large. Roads shall be planned based on the terrain a, be of flexible and diverse forms and be arranged along with the mountain chains or river banks; or the roads should be prolonged to overcome the altitude difference of physiographic form. That is why the roads in Chongqing is winding, complicated and multilevel.



Most plain cities basically adopt the annular emanate road network and square-grid development pattern, with the advantages of slight road fluctuation, regular streets, high land usage and low engineering cost. Different from mountain cities, the plain cities don’t have too many limitations to the road development and can easily satisfy the need for space development of cities. Just like Beijing which is a typically city with annular emanate road network.




Human, the main part of the public urban space, shall be fully considered in designing the pavement. The facility design shall primarily reflect the concern of people, such as the requirements for the design of disabled facilities, zebra crossings and traffic calming. The designs shall be integrated with the functions and environment landscapes and pay attention to people’s physiological needs and psychological feelings to make them feel comfortable, convenient, natural, harmonious and pleasant; meanwhile, pay attention to the design of detail structures, such as retaining walls, steps and tree pools to meet the requirement of fine design. So a good pavement need should be connect, convivial, conspicuous, comfortable, and convenient. A good user experience also important for a pavement.

Today, roads is not only service for city’s transportation, but also show the city’s characteristic. It is closely related to the daily life of urban residents and promote interaction between people. Therefore, we should put more emphasis on how to design a better movement system in order to serve the people and the city better.

Urban agriculture in South Shields




Now we are working at the regeneration of South Shields. Our preliminary idea is connect the open space and local residents through urban agriculture. We want to change the current situation of South Shields, such as “lacking of attraction”, “backward economy”, “inconspicuous urban characteristics” and other problems. Therefore, we will bring the urban agriculture into the urban regeneration plan to make the whole city revitalize through the urban agriculture.

In the works of past few weeks, we have been considering how to integrate the urban agriculture into South Shields better and how to make people be involved, let them know urban agriculture and accept it. Obviously, there are many problems worthy of consideration in the actual process. In the tutorial of last week, we discussed the problems about urban agriculture and economy with teachers. Who will participate in it? How to participate in it? What’s kind of activity and project in there? What’s the source of capital? Who supports and manages this project? These are the critical key points, which will be faced and solved by us.


We search the basic economic data of South Shields on Internet, including resident’s age analysis, work and income and house price. According to these data, we find South Shields has an aging population, that is, many old people, high unemployment, low salary and income and high house rental and sales price. Therefore, based on the current economic status, what’s change will be brought after the proposal of urban agriculture? First, urban agriculture can bring more fresh and healthy foods to local residents to improve their living quality; second, we want to connect the whole city by urban agriculture to drive the activity of the whole region and become a complete agricultural production system, which not only drive the economic development, but also provide more employment opportunities; third, this is a good opportunity to make all the local residents participate in the project, especially the old people, who can be self-sufficient and ensure the daily life. The project can also be the educational experiment base of children to provide special extracurricular teaching; finally, urban agriculture can improve the environment and attract more tourists to South Shields as a special industry and label.

The question raised by the teacher is that we should find a breakthrough point and tell a complete story by a timeline to completely express the whole urban agricultural system. So we need to find a catalysis site, develop this site to be the first step of all system. Through it to tell our idea to residents and take it as a starting point to develop the urban agriculture and economy.

Through the tutorial every week, we have a clear understanding of design process and how to make our design perfect. We study the local economy, then find the problem and solve it in a proper manner. We must combine the urban agriculture with the local current situation better.

A special city: Chongqing & Urban design in my mind



Hi,I’m SHUE LI, I come from Chongqing, a national historical and cultural cities, is located in the southwest of China. It is known as the” mountain city of china”.

Chongqing Municipality possesses abundant landform resources including mountains, hills and rivers. World-renowned Three Gorges is just located within Chongqing. Besides, Yangtze River and Jialing River pass through Chongqing. Several bridges over Yangtze River and Jialing River connect both banks of the Municipality, forming unique urban landscape. Chongqing is surrounded by mountains, so the climate is humid. It is foggy in most days throughout a year, so it is called “the City of Fog”. However, the current government is engaged in environmental management, with expectations to change this current situation. Inherently peculiar geographical conditions result in different urban texture and planning development orientation in Chongqing. Adhering to the principles of “multi-centrally clustered” urban structure, its urban planning conforms to natural characteristics of urban development in Chongqing. Moreover, this structure is also served as a sustainable pattern of urban development as well as organic unification of urban centralization and decentralization.



Firstly, Chongqing is different from most plain cities. Its urban construction doesn’t stretch out with the city as the center. Instead, landform is fully used in combination for freestyle layout of road networks. All buildings are arranged along the trend of contour lines. Bridge and tunnel are served as an integral part of the urban road system. Pedestrian steps are part of the outdoor walking system. The entire urban road system is distinctly featured by urban style of a mountainous city. Moreover, favorable urban landscape townscape can be formed. Secondly, terrain is utilized to fully develop underground space, such as underground buildings, underground footpaths and underground garages. Thirdly, the architectural form is composed of suspension, platform, staggered spring layer and other patterns. The architectural form is correlated with landform and gradient of highland, forming building groups and street landscapes peculiar to Chongqing.




Abundant landform and landscape environment provides a significant material basis for spatial structure and landscape characteristics of the mountainous city. Changing horizon contour lines and scattering building groups and streets in different gradients form a multidimensional spatial organization. A coordinating and unifying integrity is formed between the city and its surroundings or inside mountains and rivers. Moreover, it forms a three-dimensional artistic style peculiar to a mountainous city.



In my opinion, emphasis of urban design should be laid on to urban planning layout, urban appearance and urban function, especially on urban public space. Urban design is a kind of work involved in urban modeling. Its purpose is to demonstrate overall impression and beauty of a city. We should reasonably design urban elements, such as residence, stores, factories, schools, offices, transport facilities and parkland, make them proper arrangement. So as to meet human’s needs for life functions, society, economy and aesthetics. It is flexible for both scale and scope of urban design. Designers should take all kinds of factors into account, such as internal & external space arrangement, layout of a street, reservation and maintenance of a historical building and even design on a tree or a monument.

Urban design lays particular emphasis on combination of all relations in a city. It is a kind of systematic design in an integrated status to intersect, composite and permeate with each other construction, traffic, open space, greening, historic preservation and other subsystems. Urban design has the attribute of artistic creation. It is necessary for designers to consider visual image, historical accumulation, regional culture and time spirit and to combine human perception experiences to establish a city image and atmosphere featured by overall structure and easy for identification.

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